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Database Description

The following is an outline and description of the database tables created during the standard installation of WordPress Version 3.4. Currently, the only database supported by WordPress is MySQL version 5.0.15 or greater.

Also see prior versions of Database Descriptions for WordPress 1.5, WordPress 2.0, WordPress 2.2, WordPress 2.3, WordPress 2.5, WordPress 2.7, WordPress 2.8, WordPress 2.9, and WordPress 3.3.

Because WordPress interfaces with this database by itself, you as an end user, shouldn't have to worry much about its structure. If you're Writing a Plugin however, you may be interested in learning how WordPress stores its data and relationships. If you have already attempted to use the existing WordPress API to access the data you need but have determined it's not possible without accessing the database directly, WordPress provides the wpdb class to make this task easy.

Database Diagram

The diagram below provides a visual overview of the WordPress database and the relations between the tables created during the WordPress standard installation. The Table Overview below includes additional details on the tables and columns.

(WP 3.8 Database diagram)

Please note that within the standard installation of WordPress no integrity between the tables is enforced e.g. between posts and comments. If you are creating a plugin or extension that manipulates the WordPress database, your code should do the housekeeping so that no orphan records remain in the tables e.g. by removing records in other tables with a set of SQL commands when foreign keys are deleted (Don't forget to remind users to backup before such operations).

Table Overview

This section is the overview of all the tables created during the WordPress standard installation. It is followed by specific information of what is in each table.

WordPress 3.8 Tables (11)
Table Name Description Relevant Area(s) of WordPress User Interface
wp_commentmeta Each comment features information called the meta data and it is stored in the wp_commentmeta.
wp_comments The comments within WordPress are stored in the wp_comments table.
wp_links The wp_links holds information related to the links entered into the Links feature of WordPress. (This feature has been deprecated, but can be re-enabled with the Links Manager plugin.)
wp_options The Options set under the Administration > Settings panel are stored in the wp_options table. See Option Reference for option_name and default values.
wp_postmeta Each post features information called the meta data and it is stored in the wp_postmeta. Some plugins may add their own information to this table.
wp_posts The core of the WordPress data is the posts. It is stored in the wp_posts table. Also Pages and navigation menu items are stored in this table.
wp_terms The categories for both posts and links and the tags for posts are found within the wp_terms table.
wp_term_relationships Posts are associated with categories and tags from the wp_terms table and this association is maintained in the wp_term_relationships table. The association of links to their respective categories are also kept in this table.
wp_term_taxonomy This table describes the taxonomy (category, link, or tag) for the entries in the wp_terms table.
wp_usermeta Each user features information called the meta data and it is stored in wp_usermeta.
wp_users The list of users is maintained in table wp_users.

Table Details

The following are the specific fields in each of the tables created during the standard WordPress installation.

Table: wp_commentmeta

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
meta_id bigint(20) unsigned   PRI   auto_increment
comment_id bigint(20) unsigned   IND 0  
meta_key varchar(255) YES IND NULL  
meta_value longtext YES   NULL  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY meta_id
comment_id INDEX comment_id
meta_key INDEX meta_key


Table: wp_comments

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
comment_ID bigint(20) unsigned   PRI   auto_increment
comment_post_ID bigint(20) unsigned   IND 0  
comment_author tinytext        
comment_author_email varchar(100)   IND    
comment_author_url varchar(200)        
comment_author_IP varchar(100)        
comment_date datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
comment_date_gmt datetime   IND & IND Pt2 0000-00-00 00:00:00  
comment_content text        
comment_karma int(11)     0  
comment_approved varchar(20)   IND Pt1 1  
comment_agent varchar(255)        
comment_type varchar(20)        
comment_parent bigint(20) unsigned   IND 0  
user_id bigint(20) unsigned     0  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY comment_ID
comment_post_ID INDEX comment_post_ID
comment_approved_date_gmt INDEX comment_approved
comment_date_gmt
comment_date_gmt INDEX comment_date_gmt
comment_parent INDEX comment_parent
comment_author_email INDEX comment_author_email


Table: wp_links

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
link_id bigint(20) unsigned   PRI   auto_increment
link_url varchar(255)        
link_name varchar(255)        
link_image varchar(255)        
link_target varchar(25)        
link_description varchar(255)        
link_visible varchar(20)   IND Y  
link_owner bigint(20) unsigned     1  
link_rating int(11)     0  
link_updated datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
link_rel varchar(255)        
link_notes mediumtext        
link_rss varchar(255)        

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY link_id
link_visible INDEX link_visible


Table: wp_options

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
option_id bigint(20) unsigned   PRI   auto_increment
option_name varchar(64)   UNI    
option_value longtext      
autoload varchar(20)     yes  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY option_id
option_name UNIQUE option_name


Table: wp_postmeta

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
meta_id bigint(20) unsigned   PRI   auto_increment
post_id bigint(20) unsigned   IND 0  
meta_key varchar(255) YES IND NULL  
meta_value longtext YES   NULL  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY meta_id
post_id INDEX post_id
meta_key INDEX meta_key


Table: wp_posts

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
ID bigint(20) unsigned   PRI & IND Pt4   auto_increment
post_author bigint(20) unsigned   IND 0  
post_date datetime   IND Pt3 0000-00-00 00:00:00  
post_date_gmt datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
post_content longtext        
post_title text        
post_excerpt text        
post_status varchar(20)   IND PT2 publish  
comment_status varchar(20)     open  
ping_status varchar(20)     open  
post_password varchar(20)        
post_name varchar(200)   IND    
to_ping text        
pinged text        
post_modified datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
post_modified_gmt datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
post_content_filtered longtext      
post_parent bigint(20) unsigned   IND 0  
guid varchar(255)        
menu_order int(11)     0  
post_type varchar(20)   IND Pt1 post  
post_mime_type varchar(100)        
comment_count bigint(20)     0  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY ID
post_name INDEX post_name
type_status_date INDEX post_type
post_status
post_date
ID
post_parent INDEX post_parent
post_author INDEX post_author


Table: wp_terms

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
term_id bigint(20) unsigned   PRI   auto_increment
name varchar(200)   IND    
slug varchar(200)   UNI    
term_group bigint(10)     0  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY term_id
slug UNIQUE slug
name INDEX name


Table: wp_term_relationships

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
object_id bigint(20) unsigned   PRI Pt1 0  
term_taxonomy_id bigint(20) unsigned   PRI Pt2 & IND 0  
term_order int(11)     0  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY object_id
term_taxonomy_id
term_taxonomy_id INDEX term_taxonomy_id


Table: wp_term_taxonomy

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
term_taxonomy_id bigint(20) unsigned   PRI   auto_increment
term_id bigint(20) unsigned   UNI Pt1 0  
taxonomy varchar(32)   UNI Pt2 & IND    
description longtext        
parent bigint(20) unsigned     0  
count bigint(20)     0  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY term_taxonomy_id
term_id_taxonomy UNIQUE term_id
taxonomy
taxonomy INDEX taxonomy


Table: wp_usermeta

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
umeta_id bigint(20) unsigned   PRI   auto_increment
user_id bigint(20) unsigned     0  
meta_key varchar(255) Yes IND NULL  
meta_value longtext Yes IND NULL  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY umeta_id
user_id INDEX user_id
meta_key INDEX meta_key


Table: wp_users

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
ID bigint(20) unsigned   PRI   auto_increment
user_login varchar(60)   IND    
user_pass varchar(64)        
user_nicename varchar(50)   IND    
user_email varchar(100)        
user_url varchar(100)        
user_registered datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
user_activation_key varchar(60)      
user_status int(11)     0  
display_name varchar(250)        


NOTE: Enabling Multisite feature of WordPress adds two fields in wp_users table: spam and deleted. Refer the Multisite version.

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY ID
user_login_key INDEX user_login
user_nicename INDEX user_nicename


Multisite Table Overview

This section is the overview of the tables created for use with the Multisite feature of WordPress. These tables are created via the processes under Administration > Tools > Network.

These tables are considered the multisite global tables.

WordPress 3.0 Multisite Tables
Table Name Description Relevant Area(s) of WordPress User Interface
wp_blogs Each site created is stored in the table, wp_blogs.
wp_blog_versions The current database version status of each site is maintained in the wp_blogs_versions table and is updated as each site is upgraded.
wp_registration_log The wp_registration_log records the admin user created when each new site is created.
wp_signups This table holds the user that have registered for a site via the login registration process. User registration is enable in Administration > Super Admin > Options.
wp_site The wp_site table contains the main site address.
wp_sitemeta Each site features information called the site data and it is stored in wp_sitemeta. Various option information, including the site admin is kept in this table.
wp_users The list of all users is maintained in table wp_users. Multisite add two fields not in the stand-alone version.
wp_usermeta This table is not re-create for multisite, but meta data of users for each site are stored in wp_usermeta.
Site Specific Tables The data of the main site are stored in existing unnumbered tables. The data of additional sites are stored in new numbered tables.


Multisite Table Details

The following describe the tables and fields created during the network installation. Note that a global set of tables is created upon creation of the network, and site-specific tables are established as each site is created.

Table: wp_blogs

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
blog_id bigint(20)   PRI   auto_increment
site_id bigint(20)     0  
domain varchar(200)   IND Pt1    
path varchar(100)   IND Pt2    
registered datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
last_updated datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
public tinyint(2)     1  
archived tinyint(2)     0  
mature tinyint(2)     0  
spam tinyint(2)     0  
deleted tinyint(2)     0  
lang_id int(11)   IND 0  


NOTE: The blog_id identifies the site and the site_id identifies the network. It is the trace of the past when the 'site' was called as 'blog' in WordPress 2.x. If you add your site in the network, the new record will be inserted to this table wp_blogs with incremented blog_id and the same site_id.


Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY blog_id
domain INDEX domain
path
lang_id INDEX lang_id


Table: wp_blog_versions

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
blog_id bigint(20)   PRI 0  
db_version varchar(20)   IND    
last_updated datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY blog_id
db_version INDEX db_version


Table: wp_registration_log

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
ID bigint(20)   PRI   auto_increment
email varchar(255)        
IP varchar(30)   IND    
blog_id bigint(20)     0  
date_registered datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY ID
IP INDEX IP


Table: wp_signups

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
signup_id bigint(20)   PRI   auto_increment
domain varchar(200)   IND Pt1    
path varchar(100)   IND Pt2    
title longtext        
user_login varchar(60)   IND Pt1    
user_email varchar(100)   IND & IND Pt2    
registered datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
activated datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
active tinyint(1)        
activation_key varchar(50)   IND    
meta longtext Yes   NULL  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
signup_id PRIMARY signup_id
activation_key INDEX activation_key
user_email INDEX user_email
user_login_email INDEX user_login
user_email
domain_path INDEX domain
path


Table: wp_site

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
id bigint(20)   PRI   auto_increment
domain varchar(200)   IND Pt1    
path varchar(100)   IND Pt2    

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY id
domain INDEX domain
path


Table: wp_sitemeta

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
meta_id bigint(20)   PRI   auto_increment
site_id bigint(20)     0  
meta_key varchar(255) Yes IND NULL  
meta_value longtext Yes IND NULL  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY meta_id
meta_key INDEX meta_key
site_id INDEX site_id


Table: wp_users

Field Type Null Key Default Extra
ID bigint(20) unsigned   PRI   auto_increment
user_login varchar(60)   IND    
user_pass varchar(64)        
user_nicename varchar(50)   IND    
user_email varchar(100)        
user_url varchar(100)        
user_registered datetime     0000-00-00 00:00:00  
user_activation_key varchar(60)      
user_status int(11)     0  
display_name varchar(250)        
spam tinyint(2)     0  
deleted tinyint(2)     0  

Indexes

Keyname Type Field
PRIMARY PRIMARY ID
user_login_key INDEX user_login
user_nicename INDEX user_nicename


Site Specific Tables

When a new additional site is created, the site-specific tables, similar to the stand-alone tables above, are created. Each set of tables for a site are created with the site ID (blog_id) as part of the table name. These are the tables that would be created for site ID 2 and table_prefix wp_:

The data of the main site are stored in unnumbered tables.

Source File

The database scheme is defined in wp-admin/includes/schema.php

Resources

Changelog

  • 2.8 :
    • comments table: Changed comment_post_ID column from int(11) to bigint(20) unsigned.
    • links table: Deleted link_category column. Changed link_owner column from int(11) to bigint(20) unsigned.
    • posts table: Deleted post_category column.
    • term_taxonomy table: Added KEY taxonomy.
    • Add unsigned attribute to various bigint(20) fields.