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User:Qwindoo/fr:Terminologie de WordPress

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WordPress, comme beaucoup de logiciels, a son propre jargon. Dans cet article nous vous présenterons certains aspects de la terminologie associée à WordPress.

Introduction à la Terminologie de WordPress

WordPress a été créé par les développeurs comme un logiciel de weblog ou blog. Défini dans le Codex Glossary, un blog est un journal en ligne, publié par un individu ou un groupe d'individus. Beaucoup de blogs sont de nature personnelle, chacun reflétant les opinions et intérêts de leur propriétaire. Cela étant, les blogs sont dorénavant des outils importants pour le monde de l'entreprise, de la politique et du divertissement.

Les Blogs sont une forme de Systèmes de Gestion de Contenus (CMS) que Wikipedia définit comme "un système utilisé pour organiser et faciliter la création collaborative de contenus." Les blogs comme les Systèmes de Gestion de Contenus peuvent jouer le role de site Web (ou tout simplement site). Un site peut être vu comme une collection d'articles et d'information concernant un thème, un service ou un produit particulier, pouvant être ou non le reflet de la pensée du propriétaire. Plus récemment, alors que le rôle de WordPress s'est accru, les développeurs ont commencé à utiliser le terme plus général de site au lieu de blog.

Terminologie relative au Contenu

WordPress Terminology
Introduction
Developers
Blog
Content Management System
Content
Posts
Dashboard
Media
Categories
Tags
Custom Taxonomies
Post Meta Data
Custom Fields
Permalinks
Pages
Custom Post Types
Design
The Loop
Templates
Template Tags
Template Hierarchy
Headers
Sidebars
Archives
Archives (by Category)
Archives (by Tag)
Database
MySQL
Themes
Child Themes
Theme Development
Plugins
Administration
Administration Panels
Links
Link Categories
Registered Users
Roles and Capabilities
Comments
Comments Comments SubPanel
Comment Moderation
Discussion Settings
Spam
Combating Spam
Help
Finding WordPress Help
WordPress FAQ
Troubleshooting
WordPress Lessons
WordPress Support Forum
Help with Codex

Le mot Word dans WordPress se réfère aux mots utilisés pour composer des articles. Les articles sont l'élément (ou contenu) principal d'un blog. Il s'agit d'écrits, de compositions, de discussions, de discours, de réflexions et, à l'occasion, de coups de gueule du propriétaire du blog ou d'auteurs invités à participer. Dans la plupart des cas, les articles sont la raison d'être d'un blog !

Afin de faciliter le processus de rédaction d'un article, WordPress met à disposition de l'auteur un outil d'écriture complet avec des modules qui peuvent être déplacés via glisser-déposer, afin de s'adapter aux besoins de tous les auteurs. Le module QuickPress rend aisée l'écriture et la publication rapides d'un article : aucune excuse pour ne pas écrire.

Integral to a blog are the pictures, images, sounds, and movies, otherwise know as media. Media enhances, and gives life to a blog's content. WordPress provides an easy to use method of inserting Media directly into posts, and a method to upload Media that can be later attached to posts, and a Media Manager to manage those various Media.

An important part of the posting process is the act of assigning those posts to categories. Each post in WordPress is filed under one or more categories. Categories can be hierarchical in nature, where one category acts as a parent to several child, or grandchild, categories. Thoughtful categorization allows posts of similar content to be grouped, thereby aiding viewers in the navigation, and use of a site. In addition to categories, terms or keywords called tags can be assigned to each post. Tags act as another navigation tool, but are not hierarchical in nature. Both categories and tags part of a system called taxonomies. If categories and tags are not enough, users can also create custom taxonomies that allow more specific identification of posts or pages or custom post types.

In turn, post categories and tags are two of the elements of what's called post meta data. Post meta data refers to the information associated with each post and includes the author's name and the date posted as well as the post categories. Post meta data also refers to Custom Fields where you assign specific words, or keys, that can describe posts. But, you can't mention post meta data without discussing the term meta.

Generally, meta means "information about"; in WordPress, meta usually refers to administrative-type information. So, besides post meta data, Meta is the HTML tag used to describe and define a web page to the outside world, like meta tag keywords for search engines. Also, many WordPress-based sites offer a Meta section, usually found in the sidebar, with links to login or register at that site. And, don't forget Meta Rules: The rules defining the general protocol to follow in using this Codex, or Meta, as in the MediaWiki namespace that refers to administrative functions within Codex. That's a lot of Meta!

After a post is made public, a blog's readers will respond, via comments, to that post, and in turn, authors will reply. Comments enable the communication process, that give-and-take, between author and reader. Comments are the life-blood of most blogs.

Finally, WordPress also offers two other content management tools called Pages and custom post types. Pages often present static information, such as "About Me", or "Contact Us", Pages. Typically "timeless" in nature, Pages should not be confused with the time-oriented objects called posts. Interestingly, a Page is allowed to be commented upon, but a Page cannot be categorized. A custom post type refers to a type of structured data that different that a post or a page. Custom post types allow users to easily create and manage such things as portfolios, projects, video libraries, podcasts, quotes, chats, and whatever a user or developer can imagine.

Terminology Related to Design

The flexibility of WordPress is apparent when discussing terminology related to the design of a WordPress blog. At the core of WordPress, developers created a programming structure named The Loop to handle the processing of posts. The Loop is the critical PHP program code used to display posts. Anyone wanting to enhance and customize WordPress will need to understand the mechanics of The Loop.

Along with The Loop, WordPress developers have created Template Tags which are a group of PHP functions that can be invoked by designers to perform an action or display specific information. It is the Template Tags that form the basis of the Template Files. Templates (files) contain the programming pieces, such as Template Tags, that control the structure and flow of a WordPress site. These files draw information from your WordPress MySQL database and generate the HTML code which is sent to the web browser. A Template Hierarchy, in essence the order of processing, dictates how Templates control almost all aspects of the output, including Headers, Sidebars, and Archives. Archives are a dynamically generated list of posts, and are typically grouped by date, category, tag, or author.

Templates and Template Tags are two of the pieces used in the composition of a WordPress Theme. A Theme is the overall design of a site and encompasses color, graphics, and text. A Theme is sometimes called the skin. With the recent advances in WordPress, Theme Development is a hot topic. WordPress-site owners have available a long list of Themes to choose from in deciding what to present to their sites' viewers. In fact, with the use of a Theme Switcher Revisited Plugin, WordPress designers can allow their visitors to select their own Theme.

As the capabilities of WordPress have improved, developers have added various tools, Widgets, Menus, Background, Header, and Formats, to allow users to easily manage a site's look and functionality. Widgets provide an easy way to add little programs, such as the current weather, to a sidebar. Menus make it easy to define the navigation buttons that are typically present near the top of a sites pages. The Background tool allows the user to change the background image and color of a site, and the Header tool gives the user control of the images displayed at the top of a site's various pages. Formats allow the user to control the display of a specific post (i.e. display this post as an Aside or as a quote or as a galary). The WordPress Twenty Fifteen theme is an excellent example of a theme that uses these tools.

And speaking of the WordPress Twenty Fifteen theme, developers and users are encouraged to explore that theme in detail. The WordPress Twenty Fifteen theme, developed by the WordPress community, demonstrates the use of tools such as Menus and Widgets, provides examples of recommended theme coding techniques, and emphasizes the use of the Child Theme concept to shield a theme from getting overwritten during a WordPress update.

Plugins are custom functions created to extend the core functionality of WordPress. The WordPress developers have maximized flexibility and minimized code bloat by allowing outside developers the opportunity to create their own useful add-on features. As evidenced by the Plugin Directory, there's a Plugin to enhance virtually every aspect of WordPress. A Plugin management tool makes it extremely easy to find and install Plugins.

Terminology for the Administrator

Another set of terms to examine are those involving the Administration of a WordPress site. A comprehensive set of Administration Panels enables users to easily administer and monitor their blog. A WordPress administrator has a number of powers which include requiring a visitor to register in order to participate in the blog, who can create new posts, whether comments can be left, and if files can be uploaded to the blog. An Administrator also defines Links and the associated Link Categories which are an important part of a blog's connection to the outside world.

Some of the main administrative responsibilities of a WordPress blog involve adding, deleting, and managing Registered Users. Administering users means controlling Roles and Capabilities, or permissions. Roles control what functions a registered user can perform as those functions can range from just being able to login at a blog to performing the role administrator.

Another chief concern for the blog administrator is Comment Moderation. Comments, also called discussions, are responses to posts left for the post author by the visitor and represent an important part of "the give and take" of a blog. But Comments must be patrolled for Spam and other malicious intentions. The WordPress Administration Comments SubPanel simplifies that process with easy-to-use screens which add, change, and delete Comments.

And not to be forgotten is the obligation for an administrator to keep their WordPress current to insure that the latest features, bugs, and security fixes are in effect. To accomodate administrators, WordPress has a simple Upgrade Tool to download and install the lastest version of WordPress. There's no excuse to not upgrade!

Terminologie de l'Aide

La dernière catégorie de jargon concerne les moyens dont vous disposez pour obtenir de l'aide avec WordPress. Premièrement, il y a le lien Aide qui est affiché sur chacun des panneaux d'administration. Cette aide contextuelle décrit la fonction et l'utilité du panneau et contient des références vers d'autres pages de support. Mais il y a bien d'autres ressources accessibles aux utilisateurs de WordPress ; Getting More Help, Finding WordPress Help, Troubleshooting, et la FAQ WordPress (questions fréquemment posées) sont un bon moyen de commencer votre recherche. De plus, la page Getting Started with WordPress a pour but de vous permettre d'entrer dans le monde de WordPress très rapidement, et l'excellent article WordPress Lessons contient des tutoriaux détaillés concernant beaucoup d'aspects de l'utilisation de WordPress. Parmi les ressources les plus importantes, il y a le Forum d'Entraide WordPress où de savants bénévoles répondent à vos questions et vous aident à résoudre tout problème lié à WordPress. Enfin, il y a bien sûr ce Codex qui est rempli de centaines d'articles conçus pour faire de votre expérience de WordPress un succès !

Origine du Nom WordPress

Au-delà de la terminologie technique du monde de WordPress, il est aussi intéressant de connaître l'origine du nom WordPress : ce nom a été trouvé par Christine Selleck (voir l'article en question) en réponse à la volonté du développeur Matthew Mullenweg's d'associer son nouveau projet de logiciel à la presse écrite. Dans ce sens, press se réfère au monde des journalistes et photographes, un nom pertinent, puisque WordPress est utilisé comme la presse qui permet à ses utilisateurs de publier leurs mots.

Références et Ressources

Voir aussi

Liens Externes